Who is Janelle Bidwell

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About 65% of the population are U.S. nationals, of whom at least 10% are U.S. citizens. Of the foreign-born population, 81% are from Samoa, 9% are from other parts of Oceania, and 9% are from Asia. The U.S. federal government does not impose estate or gift taxes on property not located in the United States owned by residents of a U.S. territory who are not U.S. citizens or who acquired U.S. citizenship by birth or naturalization in that same U.S. territory. However, these taxes still apply to residents of a U.S. territory who acquired U.S. citizenship by birth or naturalization in a different part of the U.S. or by descent.

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On June 21, 1963 Paramount Chief Tuli Leʻiato of Fagaʻitua was sworn in and installed as the first Secretary of Samoan Affairs by Governor H. Rex Lee. On June 2, 1967, Interior Secretary Stewart Udall promulgated the Revised Constitution of American Samoa, which took effect on July 1, 1967. On November 8, 2010, United States Secretary of State and former First Lady Hillary Clinton made a refueling stopover at the Pago Pago International Airport. She was greeted by government dignitaries and presented with gifts and a traditional ava ceremony. On July 22, 2010, Detective Lieutenant Lusila Brown was fatally shot outside the temporary High Court building in Fagatogo. It was the first time in more than 15 years that a police officer was killed in the line of duty.

American Samoa’s constitution was ratified in 1966 and came into effect in 1967. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the legislature. The American political parties exist in American Samoa, but few politicians are aligned with the parties.

June 28, 2022

The Navy secured a Deed of Cession of Tutuila in 1900 and a Deed of Cession of Manuʻa in 1904 on behalf of the U.S. government. The last sovereign of Manuʻa, the Tui Manuʻa Elisala, signed a Deed of Cession of Manuʻa following a series of U.S. naval trials, known as the “Trial of the Ipu”, in Pago Pago, Taʻu, and aboard a Pacific Squadron gunboat. American Samoa is the only major territory of the United States in which citizenship is not granted at birth, and people born there are considered “non-citizen nationals”. American Samoa consists of five main islands and two coral atolls. The largest and most populous island is Tutuila, with the Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll and Swains Island also included in the territory. All islands except for Swains Island are part of the Samoan Islands, west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, and some 500 kilometres south of Tokelau.

It has been argued that this distinction based on place of birth, and not only residence or citizenship, is a rare case of unconstitutional tax discrimination, but it has never been challenged in court. The government of American Samoa itself does not impose estate or gift taxes. In 1983, the use of citizenship in taxation by American Samoa (due to its incorporation of the U.S. tax code) was ruled unconstitutional. The overwhelming majority of public sector employees work for the American Samoa territorial government. The one tuna cannery is StarKist, which exports several hundred million dollars worth of canned tuna to the United States each year. In early 2007, the Samoan economy was highlighted in the Congress at the request of Eni Faleomavaega, the Samoan delegate to the United States House of Representatives, as it was not mentioned in the minimum wage bill.

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As of August 2017, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints website claims membership of 16,180 (one-quarter of American Samoa’s entire population), with 41 congregations and four family history centers. Jehovah’s Witnesses claim 210 “ministers of the word” and three congregations. As of 2021 the population of American Samoa is about 46,366 people, 97% of whom live on the largest island, Tutuila.

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Army recruiting station in Pago Pago was ranked first in production out of the 885 Army recruiting stations and centers under the United States Army Recruiting Command. It is east of the International Date Line, while Samoa is west of the Line. The total land area is 199 square kilometers (76.8 sq mi), slightly more than Washington, D.C. American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the United States and one of two U.S. territories south of the Equator, along with the uninhabited Jarvis Island. Tuna products are the main exports, and the main trading partner is the rest of the United States. Buying a home is the biggest investment most people will ever make, but not all real estate agents are equal. Find out how the experience and training of a REALTOR® can help you get into your dream home.

The other major tuna canning plant in American Samoa is StarKist, which began laying off workers in August 2010, with plans to lay off a total of 800 workers due to the minimum wage increases and other rising operation costs. American Samoa Governor Togiola Tulafono suggested that, rather than laying off minimum wage workers, the companies could reduce salaries and bonuses of top-tier employees. American Samoa is administratively divided into three districts– Western, Eastern and Manuʻa– and two “unorganized” atolls, Swains Island and the uninhabited Rose Atoll. Pago Pago, often cited as the capital of American Samoa, is one of the largest villages and is located on the central part of Tutuila island in Maʻoputasi County. Unlike all other permanently inhabited U.S. jurisdictions (states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam and Northern Mariana Islands), American Samoa is not considered a U.S. state for the purposes of the U.S. As a result, there is no path for immigrants to American Samoa to apply for U.S. citizenship, or U.S. nationality at all, without permanent residence in another U.S. jurisdiction.

June 24, 2022

This department arranged bowling, softball, badminton tournaments, basketball, and volleyball at various Tutuila locations. J. Gordon Melton in his book claims that the Methodists, Congregationalists with the London Missionary Society, and Roman Catholics led the first Christian missions to the islands. Other denominations arrived later, beginning in 1895 with the Seventh-day Adventists, various Pentecostals , Church of the Nazarene, Jehovah’s Witnesses and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. On June 8, 1922, the first bus service on Tutuila began its operations. There is currently a bus system in American Samoa called the ʻaiga bus system—it consists of buses that travel across the island of Tutuila.

American Samoa does not impose a sales tax, but it imposes a general import tax of 8%. American Samoa is an independent customs territory, whose importation rules and taxes differ from those applicable to other parts of the United States. Income, or to U.S. federal estate or gift taxes on their non-U.S. It is not possible for U.S. citizens to acquire this status after birth. In response to the minimum wage increase, the Chicken of the Sea tuna canning plant was shut down in 2009 and 2,041 employees were laid off in the process.

As of 2021, the population of American Samoa is approximately 46,366 people.Most American Samoans are bilingual and can speak English and Samoan fluently. The Blacklist is a crime drama involving a former government agent who turned into a high-profile criminal turning himself in to the FBI offering to help catch criminals. The second American Samoan to play for the All Blacks is Jerome Kaino (born in Fagaʻalu). A native of Leone, Kaino moved to New Zealand when he was four. In 2004, at age 21, he played his first match for New Zealand against the Barbarians where he scored his first try, contributing to New Zealand’s 47–19 victory that resulted in him becoming man of the match.

U.S. nationals can freely move to American Samoa, provided they have secured a job in Samoa preceding their arrival. The American Samoan government, via its Immigration Office, controls the migration of aliens to the islands. Special application forms exist for migration to American Samoa based on family or employment sponsorship. In 1918, during the final stages of World War I, the flu pandemic had taken its toll, spreading rapidly from country to country. The result of Poyer’s quick actions earned him the Navy Cross from the U.S.

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He also played a crucial role in the Rugby World Cup 2011 playing every match in the tournament. He scored four tries in the event which led to New Zealand winning the final against France 8–7. Kaino was also a key member of the 2015 Rugby World Cup squad, where he played every match including a try he scored in the quarterfinals against France which New Zealand won 62–13. He scored again in the semifinals against South Africa, which New Zealand won 20–18.

Minimum wage in Samoa has been the topic of much debate, with the Samoan government and Chamber of Commerce strongly opposed, while businesses and workers hold nuanced views. U.S. nationals without U.S. citizenship have the right to reside in all parts of the United States without immigration restrictions. They also have the same rights as lawful permanent residents to sponsor foreign family members to immigrate to the United States , but not the same rights as U.S. citizens . American Samoans elect one non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives.

The constitution specifies the seat of government at Fagatogo, where the legislature, High Court and District Court are located. The executive office building is located in neighboring Utulei. These two villages are located along Pago Pago Harbor, whose largest village is Pago Pago.
  • Samoans have tended to emigrate instead to New Zealand, whose influence has made the sports of rugby and cricket more popular in the western Samoan islands.
  • American Samoa Governor Togiola Tulafono suggested that, rather than laying off minimum wage workers, the companies could reduce salaries and bonuses of top-tier employees.
  • On June 8, 1922, the first bus service on Tutuila began its operations.

The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, American Samoa played a pivotal role in five of the Apollo Program missions. The astronauts landed several hundred miles from Pago and were transported to the islands en route back to the mainland. President Richard Nixon gave three moon rocks to the American Samoan government, and these are on display in the Jean P. Haydon Museum, along with a flag carried to the moon on one of the missions. The fact that First Lady reviewed the troops led to further assurance that Tutuila Island was considered safe.

Other special birds to Manuʻa are the lesser shrikebill and the friendly ground-dove. The first rugby game recorded in American Samoa was in 1924, since then the development of the game had been heavily overshadowed by the influence of American Football during the 1970s. The highest governing body of rugby in American Samoa is the American Samoa Rugby Union which was founded in 1990 and was not affiliated into the IRB until 2012. Internationally, two American Samoans have played for the New Zealand national rugby union team, known as the All Blacks. Frank Solomon became the first American national of Samoan descent to play for a New Zealand team.

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The last was Sa Fuimaono, who drowned after saving a teenager from rough seas. On November 21, 1939, American Samoa’s last execution was carried out. Imoa was convicted of stabbing Sema to death and was hanged in the Customs House. The popular Samoan song “Faʻafofoga Samoa” is based on this, said to be the final words of Imoa. Because of economic hardship, military service has been seen as an opportunity in American Samoa and other U.S. As of March 23, 2009, ten American Samoans had died in Iraq, and two had died in Afghanistan.

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 has contained special provisions for American Samoa since its inception, citing its limited economy. American Samoan wages are based on the recommendations of a Special Industry Committee meeting bi-annually. Originally, the act contained provisions for other territories, provisions which were phased out as those territories developed more diverse economies. Climate change in American Samoa encompasses the effects of climate change, attributed to man-made increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, in the U.S. territory of American Samoa. The American Samoa Environmental Protection Agency notes that the territory “has a fragile ecosystem” which is “directly and immediately impacted by global climate change”.

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American Samoa, located within the geographical region of Oceania, is one of only two possessions of the United States in the Southern Hemisphere, the other being Jarvis Island. Its total land area is 76.1 square miles (197.1 km2)—slightly larger than Washington, D.C.—consisting of five rugged, volcanic islands and two coral atolls. On July 20, 2021, the Legislature of American Samoa unanimously passed a resolution in support of the 10th Circuit Court’s decision to reverse. The legislative power is vested in the American Samoa Fono, which has two chambers. The House of Representatives has 21 members serving two-year terms, being 20 representatives popularly elected from various districts and one non-voting delegate from Swains Island elected in a public meeting. The Senate has 18 members, elected for four-year terms by and from the chiefs of the islands.

Department of Interior–sponsored attempt to incorporate American Samoa, was introduced in Congress. It was ultimately defeated, primarily through the efforts of Samoan chiefs, led by Tuiasosopo Mariota. The efforts of these chiefs led to the creation of a territorial legislature, the American Samoa Fono, which meets in the village of Fagatogo. In 1950 the Department of the Interior began to administer the American Samoa. Swains Island, which had been included in the list of guano islands appertaining to the United States and bonded under the Guano Islands Act, was annexed in 1925 by Pub.

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Those nationals—born on the 55,000-person US island territory in the South Pacific—receive US passports, can serve in the military and work and live on the mainland United States. Of the ten secondary schools, five are operated by the American Samoa Department of Education; the other five are either administered by religious denominations or are privately owned. American Samoa Community College, founded in 1970, provides post-secondary education on the islands. According to Pew Research Center, 98.3% of the total population is Christian. Among Christians, 59.5% are Protestant, 19.7% are Roman Catholic and 19.2% are other Christians. A major Protestant church on the island, gathering a substantial part of the local Protestant population, is the Congregational Christian Church in American Samoa, a Reformed denomination in the Congregationalist tradition.

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Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia affirmed that Fourteenth Amendment citizenship guarantees did not apply to persons born in unincorporated territories and a year later the U.S. There is also the traditional village politics of the Samoa Islands, the “faʻamatai” and the “faʻa Sāmoa”, which continues in American Samoa and in independent Samoa, and which interacts across these current boundaries. The faʻa Sāmoa is the language and customs, and the faʻamatai the protocols of the “fono” and the chief system. The faʻamatai and the fono take place at all levels of the Samoan body politic, from the family, to the village, to the region, to national matters. The following year, the U.S. formally annexed its portion, a smaller group of eastern islands, one of which contains the noted harbor of Pago Pago. After the United States Navy took possession of eastern Samoa for the United States government, the existing coaling station at Pago Pago Bay was expanded into a full naval station, known as United States Naval Station Tutuila and commanded by a commandant.

Six-time All-Pro Junior Seau was one of the most famous Americans of Samoan heritage ever to play in the NFL, having been elected to the NFL 1990s All-Decade Team and Pro Football Hall of Fame. Pittsburgh Steelers safety Troy Polamalu, though born and raised in the mainland United States, is another famous American of Samoan heritage to have played in the NFL, not having his hair cut since and wearing it down during games in honor of his heritage. The football culture was featured on 60 Minutes on January 17, 2010. After World War II, a Welfare and Recreation Department was created.

June 22, 2022

He played in the World Cup final against Australia where New Zealand won again 34–17 to become world champions for a record three times . Kaino is one of twenty New Zealand rugby players to have won the Rugby World Cup twice, back to back in 2011 and 2015. In August 2015, the American Samoa Rugby Union Board selected Leota Toma Patu from the village of Leone as the coach for the Talavalu 15 men’s team that represented American Samoa at the Ocean Cup 2015 in Papua New Guinea.

Her presence underscored that World War II had passed by American Samoa. While the Fita Fita band played, Eleanor Roosevelt inspected the guard. Navy-appointed governor was replaced by Peter Tali Coleman, who was locally elected.

The Vailuluʻu seamount, an active submerged volcano, lies 28 miles east of Taʻū in American Samoa. It was discovered in 1975 and has since been studied by an international team of scientists, contributing towards understanding of the Earth’s fundamental processes. Growing inside the summit crater of Vailuluʻu is an active underwater volcanic cone, named after Samoa’s goddess of war, Nafanua. The five volcanic islands are Tutuila, Aunuʻu, Ofu, Olosega, and Taʻū. Of the seven islands, Rose Atoll is the only uninhabited one; it is a Marine National Monument. American Samoa is the southernmost reach of the United States at fourteen degrees below the equator.

The Governor of American Samoa is the head of government and along with the Lieutenant Governor of American Samoa is elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term. Since American Samoa is a U.S. territory, the President of the United States serves as the head of state but does not play a direct role in government. The Secretary of the Interior oversees the government, retaining the power to approve constitutional amendments, overrides to the governor’s vetoes, and nomination of justices. American Samoa is classified in U.S. law as an unincorporated territory; the Ratification Act of 1929 vested all civil, judicial, and military powers in the President of the United States. In 1951, with Executive Order 10264, President Harry Truman delegated that authority to the Secretary of the Interior.

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Res. 68–75, following dissolution of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony by the United Kingdom. After World War I, during the time of the Mau movement in Western Samoa , there was a corresponding American Samoa Mau movement led by Samuelu Ripley, a World War I veteran who was from Leone village, Tutuila. After meetings in the United States mainland, he was prevented from disembarking from the ship that brought him home to American Samoa and was not allowed to return because the American Samoa Mau movement was suppressed by the U.S. Congress sent a committee to investigate the status of American Samoa, led by Americans who had a part in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen was the first known European to sight the Samoan Islands in 1722, calling them the “Baumann Islands” after one of his captains.

With this distinction, American Samoans regarded Poyer as their hero for what he had done to prevent the deadly disease. The neighboring New Zealand territory at the time, Western Samoa, suffered the most of all Pacific islands, with 90% of the population infected; 30% of adult men, 22% of adult women and 10% of children died. Poyer offered assistance to help his New Zealand counterparts, but was refused by the administrator of Western Samoa, Robert Logan, who became outraged after witnessing the number of quarantine ships surrounding American Samoa. Angered by this, Logan cut off communications with his American counterparts. The ʻaiga is the family unit of Samoan society, which differs from the Western sense of a family in that it consists of an “extended family” based on the culture’s communal socio-political organization.

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The next explorer to visit the islands was Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, who named them the “Îles des Navigateurs” in 1768. British explorer James Cook recorded the island names in 1773, but never visited. Traditional oral literature of Samoa and Manuʻa talks of a widespread Polynesian network or confederacy (or “empire”) that was prehistorically ruled by the successive Tui Manuʻa dynasties.

Manuan genealogies and religious oral literature also suggest that the Tui Manuʻa had long been one of the most prestigious and powerful paramounts of Samoa. Oral history suggests that the Tui Manuʻa kings governed a confederacy of far-flung islands which included Fiji, Tonga as well as smaller western Pacific chiefdoms and Polynesian outliers such as Uvea, Futuna, Tokelau, and Tuvalu.

According to the Immigration and Nationality Act , the people born in American Samoa—including those born on Swains Island—are “nationals but not citizens of the United States at birth”. If a child is born on any of these islands to any U.S. citizen, then that child is considered a national and a citizen of the United States at birth. All U.S. nationals also have the right to work in the United States, except in certain government jobs that specifically require U.S. citizenship. Unique among U.S. territories, American Samoa has its own immigration law, separate from the laws that apply in other parts of the United States.