While this tune rounded out the lyrical content of the evening, it wasn’t until her modified version of the jazz standard “Summertime” that the full breadth of Swift’s vocals was exposed. In almost every previous song, her vocals had unfortunately fell into constant simile. In one song her voice sounded like Gwen Stefani, another like Fiona Apple and a third – of course – like Ani DiFranco. All it took was a slow, sultry, minor key jazz standard to bring out her own signature voice. It’s a tough dig when everyone considers you the Canadian version of Ani DiFranco.
How Homes Catch On Fire During A Wildfire
By creating an environment that is too wet to burn, the threat of ember ignition due to a wildfire can be greatly reduced. Focusing on hydrating Home Ignition Zones 0 and 1 , it is possible to saturate the area around a home prior to exposure to embers. A study from the University of Minnesota on the Ham Lake Fire indicated that intermittent precipitation over a 24 hour period for HIZ0 and HIZ1 creates an environment around a home that will be too wet for ember ignition to take place. In this study, every home equipped with a working external wildfire sprinkler system survived the Ham Lake fire. Out of 104 total structures, 46 with working sprinklers all survived, while 38 of the structures with no sprinklers were lost.
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An ember, also called a hot coal, is a hot lump of slowly burning solid fuel, typically glowing, composed of greatly heated wood, coal, or other carbon-based material. Embers can exist within, remain after, or sometimes precede, a fire. Embers are, in some cases, as hot as the fire which created them. They radiate a substantial amount of heat long after the fire has been extinguished, and if not taken care of properly can rekindle a fire that is thought to be completely extinguished and can pose a fire hazard. In order to avoid the danger of accidentally spreading a fire, many campers pour water on the embers or cover them in dirt.
Flying Embers Are The Cause Of Up To 90% Of Homes Destroyed By Wildfire
In March of 2019 the Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety simulated an active wildfire by showering embers on a duplex house structure in their test chamber in South Carolina. The house was built and landscaped on one side as a wildfire-resistant structure, and on the other side with common materials used when wildfire resistance is not a consideration. The wildfire-resistant side did not burn, highlighting the fact that if embers don’t have any fuel to ignite, the chance of a home being destroy by wildfire is reduced significantly.
A study of 2007 Witch and Guejito fires in San Diego indicates that potentially every home lost in the fire was impacted by some form of ember ignition. Conservatively, ember ignitions accounted for 55 out of the 74 homes destroyed. Embers were involved either by igniting vegetation that in turn ignited the structure or by directly igniting a home. An ember is formed when a fire has only partially burnt a piece of fuel, and there is still usable chemical energy in that piece of fuel. This happens because the usable chemical energy is so deep into the center that air does not reach it, therefore not causing combustion (carbon-based fuel + O2 → CO2 + H2O + C + other chemicals involved).